Heart failure and extracellular vesicles
Palliative care discusses the care of patients with a life-limiting condition; this paper specifically addresses palliative care in advanced heart failure. In this review, the symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, anxiety and constipation are discussed, underscoring how these may be treated and managed therapeutically. Overall, the lack of guidelines surrounding these symptoms, as well as palliative care in general, is highlighted. There is little research on opioid dosage for breathlessness, as well as fatigue for non-cancer patients, as most of the research available is centred around advanced cancer patients. An individualised approach with the collaboration of specialist teams will hold the best potential to provide high quality palliative care for patients with advanced heart failure.
This review by Connolly M & Ryder M aimed to discuss palliative care for patients with heart disease by highlighting the management of key symptoms and their treatment options.
To ensure the highest quality of palliative care for patients with advanced heart failure. there is a call for the collaboration between specialist teams as well as improved guidelines in symptom management. Evidence-based recommendations for clinicians will allow for successful individualised treatment and managed of symptoms for this group of patients.